How a Good Lent Can Help Fix a Bad Economy

good_lentTo those who see no link between Lent and our failing economy, it might be the case to look again.

Economics is about people. It cannot be reduced to numbers, formulae and analyses. “The subject matter of economics,” observes economic historian Odd Langholm, “is properly the habits, customs, and ways of thinking of producers, consumers, buyers, sellers, borrowers, lenders, and all who engage in economic transactions.”

That means our moral habits can have a definite effect on determining if our economy grows—or fails.

In my book, Return to Order, I show how our present economic crisis is being caused by what I call “frenetic intemperance.”

Free Book Return to OrderFree Book: Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian Society—Where We’ve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go

 

Frenetic intemperance can be defined as a restless spirit inside certain sectors of modern economy that foments a drive inside men to throw off legitimate restraints and gratify disordered passions. It is not a specifically economic problem but a moral and psychological vice that throws everything out of balance. When frenetic intemperance dominates, it often sends the whole system into convulsions—as we saw during the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. And, unless addressed, it is virulent enough to crash the entire financial system.

In our daily lives, we see frenetic intemperance in the tendency to desire everything, right away, regardless of the consequences. Everyone must have the latest gadget even though they do not need it and really cannot afford it. The mad lack of restraint leads to an unstable economy laden with boom and bust, debt and stress. It creates a cold mechanistic economy where money rules. It gives rise to a materialistic culture which values quantity and utility over quality and beauty. The long and short of it is that a frenzied economy comes from frenzied lifestyles.

And that brings us to Lent. Fighting bad moral habits and practicing restraint is what Lent is all about. More than giving up a box of chocolates, how about giving up habits that foster frenetic intemperance, which is the real root cause of our economic decline? Besides the personal benefits of interior peace, detachment, and greater spiritual freedom, a good Lent can also help save our economy.

Here are some suggestions on how this might be done.

1. Avoid speculative investments that promise huge returns on investment in little time. Such offers usually do not deliver what they promise and always feed frenetic desires that create anxiety and stress.

2. Stay away from business relationships that are cold and mechanical. Treat workers like family. Respect those for whom you work.

3. Avoid trendy business gurus and books that call for radical changes that will “revolutionize” a company or keep people in a constant state of change.

4. Eschew work schedules that are inhuman and stressful. Learn to appreciate leisure.

5. Avoid compulsive buying especially during those sales frenzies around the holidays.

6. Shun the abuse of credit cards and especially the temptation to pay only the minimal monthly amount. Avoid consumer debt as you would the plague (i.e. borrowing to buy things for your immediate consumption, e.g. that new laptop, games, cars, fashion clothing, etc. that you cannot afford, as opposed to investment debt , e.g. your home mortgage).

7. Learn not to have everything right now. The culture of instant gratification creates a frenzied lifestyle—and economy.

8. Do not take as role models those who have money as the central axis of their lives. Admire character not a person’s bottom line.

9. Resist the temptation of seeing only quantity and cheapness. Learn to appreciate the beauty of quality and good taste.

10. Avoid lavish display, especially of fancy gadgetry that leads to a desire to keep up with the e-Joneses with the latest version.

What Does Saint Thomas Say About Immigration?

As Lent progresses, we would do well to do something that has an impact beyond our own spiritual lives. It would be good to practice charity toward our neighbor by looking at the big picture. Giving up frenetic intemperance is a good start.

Sunday is a Day of Rest Isn’t It?

The Charm of the Medieval TownThere is the mistaken impression that for a modern economy to work efficiently, everything must be 24/7. Missing a beat is considered fatal to good business and economic productivity. All must be frenzied and hurried if one is to compete in today’s globalized economy.

Such assumptions go against the necessities of human nature. People are not machines. They need to stop and rest. If society is to return to some kind of order, people must be convinced that things can stop. Things should stop. Things must stop.

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This is not some wistful desire for simpler times of the past. Stopping can be done today and a good example is found in Germany. They call it “sonntagsruhe” which in German means “Sunday rest.” Germany, the world’s fourth largest economic power, stops on Sunday.

It should be emphasized that stopping on Sunday is not optional in Germany: one must stop on Sunday. The “sonntagsruhe” is not just casually staying away from work. Rather, the long-established custom keeps most shops closed and noise levels down. Even lawnmowers and leaf blowers must fall silent so that all might enjoy their rest. Loud music is restricted.  Heavy trucks are banned from the highways to prevent unnecessary noise – and give truckers a much needed break. The system is set up so that one has to stop and get some rest after an uber-efficient workweek.

The hard-working Germans on their part enjoy the weekly respite. It provides an opportunity for them to concentrate on unwinding, indulge in neighborly considerations or enjoy a good stein of beer. During their Sunday rest, Germans take to the outdoors, visit family and friends or (unfortunately, less frequently) attend church.


So enshrined is the national appetite for Sunday rest that repeated efforts by retailers and businesses to loosen the rules have ended up in failure. Some German states allow occasional Sunday openings for special shopping events and seasons, but most commercial Sunday activity is restricted by law… but also by choice, since the Sunday rest appears to enjoy widespread popular support. Such stopping has not jeopardized the national economy as Germany is the enviable economic powerhouse of Europe.

Of course, America is not Germany. While it can be admitted that most people still have Sunday off, it has become much more a day of shopping and activity than of rest or spiritual edification. Indeed, it was not too long ago that America had its own “Sunday rest.” Things simply shut down so people could be with their families. A few essential services stayed open, as they should. Back then, the seventh day was generally dedicated to God and those relationships that really matter.

What Does Saint Thomas Say About Immigration?

The key to some kind of return to order is not to legislate some kind of “sonntagsruhe” upon the American populace. Rather it consists of understanding what happened that changed mentalities so drastically and then questioning the prevailing attitude.

Over the last decades, what went wrong was that a great agitation entered into the national psyche whereby people became impatient with anything that might impede their own gratification—sexual or otherwise. This led to the acceleration of the frenetic intemperance of modern times where everyone must have everything instantly—even on Sunday. In his book, 24/7, author Jonathan Crary calls it “the absoluteness of availability, and hence the ceaselessness of needs and their incitement.”

The result is an anything-anywhere-anytime economy where all can be had at the click of a mouse or the swipe of a card. It is a frustratingly frantic system, in which people forever want more, yet never feel fulfilled. Indeed, all might be had in such a world, but much has been lost.

What must be questioned is if this world where people are always connected to frenzy is desirable. Tethered as they are to their electronic devices, people no longer free themselves from the stressful demands of daily life that follow them everywhere. They no longer have or take the time to consider what Notre Dame Professor Brad Gregory calls those important “Life Questions” where the meaning and purpose of life are considered in silence and peace.

This same connected world keeps individuals disconnected from the necessary links to Subscribe to Return to Orderfamily, community and faith that keep a society in balance and support individuals in their journey through life. It favors a collection of extreme individualists who are terrifyingly alone together. It is no wonder that there is so much anxiety in modern society.

What needs to be done is to challenge the myths that say things cannot stop and a return to order is not possible. Things can stop and it is time to have the courage to challenge the frenzy. Indeed, today’s stressful 24/7 world is in dire need of a Sunday rest.

As seen on speronews.com

Christmas Novena

Christmas Novena banner
Christmas Novena Opening Prayer

(To be recited each day)

Hail, and blessed be the hour and moment

In which the Son of God was born

Of the most pure Virgin Mary

At midnight, in Bethlehem

In piercing cold.

In that hour, vouchsafe I beseech Thee, O my God,

To hear my prayers and grant my petitions

Through the merits of Jesus Christ and of His most blessed Mother. Amen.

(Mention your intentions here)

 

 

Day 1
Christmas Novena Day 1
Prayer: O Great Son of God, you have become man in order to make yourself loved by men. But where is the love that men give you in return? You have given your life blood to save our souls.

Why then are we so hard-hearted, repaying your love with our ingratitude? More than others, I have myself ill-treated you in this manner, Lord.

But your Passion is my hope. For the sake of that love which led you to take upon yourself our human nature and to die for me on the cross, forgive me all the offenses I have committed against you.

I love you, O Word Incarnate. I love you, O infinite goodness. Contrite and repentant, out of love for you, I could die of grief for these offenses. Give me, O Jesus, your love. Let me no longer live in ungrateful forgetfulness of the love you bear me. I wish to love you always. Grant that I may always persevere in this holy desire.

O Mary, Mother of God and my Mother, pray for me that your Son may give me the grace to love Him always. Amen.

 

Day 2
Christmas Novena Day 2
Prayer: O Dearest Infant! Tell me, what have you come on earth to do? Tell me, whom do you seek? Yes, I already know. You have come to die for me, to save me from hell. You have come seeking me, your lost sheep, so that, instead of fleeing from you, my gentle shepherd, I may rest in the protection of loving arms. O my Jesus, my treasure, my life, my love and my all!  Whom will I love, if not you?  Where can I find a father, a friend, a spouse more loving and more lovable than yourself?

I love you, O my God; I love you, my only good.  I regret the many years when I have not loved you as I ought, but rather spurned and offended you. Forgive me, O my beloved Redeemer; I am heartedly sorry for having treated you so coldly.

Pardon me, and give me the grace never more to withdraw from you, but constantly to love you in all the years that still lie before me in this life.  My love, I give myself entirely to you; accept me, and do not reject me as I deserve.

O Mary, my advocate, by your prayers you can obtain whatever you will from your Son. Beseech Him, then, to forgive me, and to grant me holy perseverance until death. Amen.

 

Day 3
Christmas Novena Day 3
Prayer: O Dear Infant Jesus, would I have been so ungrateful and offended you so often, if I had realized how much you have suffered for me? But these tears which you shed, this poverty which you embrace for love of me, fill me with the hope that you will pardon all the offenses I have committed against you.

My Jesus, I am sorry for having so often turned my back on you. But now I love you above all else. “My God and my all!” From this moment forward, O my God, you shall be my only treasure and my only good. With Saint Ignatius of Loyola I will say to you, “Give me the grace to love you; that is enough for me.” I long for nothing else; I want nothing else. You alone are enough for me, my Jesus, my life, my love.

O Mary, my Mother, obtain for me the grace that I may always love Jesus and always be loved by Him. Amen.

 

Day 4
Christmas Novena Day 4
Prayer: O Dearest Savior, you have embraced so many outrages for love of me, yet I am incapable of bearing a single insult without immediately being filled with resentful thoughts, I who have so often deserved to be trodden underfoot by the demons in hell! I am ashamed to appear before you, sinful and proud as I am. Yet, do not drive me from your presence, O Lord, even though that is what I deserve. You have said that you will not spurn a contrite and humbled heart. I am sorry for the offenses I have committed against you. Forgive me, O Jesus. I will not offend you again.

For love of me you have borne so many injuries; for love of you, I will bear all the injuries that are done to me. I love you, Jesus, who were despised for love of me. I love you above every other good. Give me the grace to love you always and to bear every insult for love of you.

O Mary, recommend me to your Son; pray to Jesus for me. Amen.

 

Day 5
Christmas Novena Day 5
Prayer: O Jesus, my sweet Love! I too have caused you to suffer during your life. Tell me, then, what I must do in order to win your forgiveness. I am ready to do all you ask of me. I am truly sorry, O sovereign Good, for all the offenses I have committed against you. I love you more than myself, or at least I feel a great desire to love you. Since it is you who have given me this desire, do you also give me the strength to love you exceedingly.

It is only right that I, who have offended you so much, should love you very much. Always remind me of the love you have borne me, so that my soul may ever burn with love of you and long to please you alone. O God of love, I, who was once a slave of hell, now give myself entirely to you. Graciously accept me and bind me to yourself with the bonds of your love. My Jesus, from this day and forever, I shall live loving you, and, in loving you, will I die.

O Mary, my Mother and my hope, help me to love your dear God and mine. This is the only favor I ask of you, and through you I hope to receive it. Amen.

 

Day 6
Christmas Novena Day 6
Prayer: O my Dear Redeemer! Where would I now be, if you had not borne with me so patiently, but had called me from this life while I was in the state of sin?

Since you have waited for me till now, forgive me quickly, O my Jesus, before death finds me still guilty of so many offenses that I have committed against you. I am so sorry for having despised you, my sovereign Good that I could die of grief. But you cannot abandon a soul that seeks you.

If hitherto I have forsaken you, I now seek you and love you. Yes, my God, I love you above all else; I love you more than myself.

Help me, Lord, to love Thee during the rest of my life. I seek nothing else of you. But this I beg of you, this I hope to receive from you.

Mary, my hope, pray for me. If you pray for me, I am sure of obtaining this grace. Amen.

 

Day 7
Christmas Novena Day 7
Prayer: Dear Infant Jesus, crying so bitterly! How much reason you have to weep in seeing yourself persecuted by men whom you have loved so much. I, too, O God, have persecuted you by my sins. But you know that now I love you more than myself, and that nothing pains me more than the thought that I have so often spurned you, my sovereign Good.

Forgive me, O Jesus, and let me bear you with me in my heart, during the remainder of my life’s journey, so that together with you, I may enter into eternity. How often have I driven you from my soul by my sins. But now I love you above all things, and more than all other misfortunes, I regret that I have offended you. I wish to leave you no more, my beloved Lord. But give me the strength to resist temptation. Never permit me to be separated from you again.  Let me rather die than ever again lose your good grace.

O Mary, my hope, obtain that I may always live in God’s love and then die in loving Him. Amen.

 

Day 8
Christmas Novena Day 8
Prayer: O Jesus, my Savior! When I consider how, for love of me, you spent thirty years of your life hidden and unknown in a poor workshop, how can I desire the pleasures, honors and riches of this world? Gladly do I renounce them, one and all, since I wish to be your companion on this earth, poor as you were, mortified and humble as you were, so that I may hope to be able one day to enjoy your companionship in heaven. What are all the treasures and kingdoms of this world? O Jesus, you are my only treasure, my only Good!

I keenly regret the many times in the past when I spurned your friendship in order to satisfy my foolish whims. I am sorry for them with all my heart. For the future I would rather lose my life a thousand times than lose your grace by sin. I desire never to offend you again, but always to love you. Help me to remain faithful to you until death.

O Mary, the sure refuge of sinners, you are my hope. Amen.

 

Day 9
Christmas Novena Day 9
Prayer: O Adorable Infant Jesus! I should not have the boldness to cast myself at your feet, if I did not know that you yourself invite me to draw near. It is I who by my sins have made you shed so many tears in the stable of Bethlehem. But since you have come on earth to pardon repentant sinners, forgive me also, now that I am heartily sorry for having spurned you, my Savior and my God, who are so good and who have loved me so much.

This blessed night, during which you bestow great graces on so many souls, grant your heavenly consolation to this poor soul of mine. All that I ask of you is the grace to love you always, from this day forward, with all my heart. Set me all on fire with your holy love. I love Thee, O my God, who became a Babe for love of me. Never let me cease loving you ever more.

O Mary, Mother of Jesus and my Mother, you can obtain everything from your Son by your prayers. This is the only favor I ask of you: pray to Jesus for me. Amen.

 

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The Contradiction of Our Frenzied Lifestyles

contradicton of lifestylesIn a world where everything is so rationalistic and well-organized, it seems a contradiction that people would seek after things like drugs, alcohol abuse, promiscuity, violence, extreme sports, intense music, violent video games and other such pursuits that border on the irrational.

Yet, as sociologist Richard Strivers notes, such behavior is actually a consequence of overly rationalistic institutions. As bureaucratic and technical structures proliferate, he claims people sense that they have lost control over their lives. Their reaction is to escape into a realm of ecstasy that seems to rebel against this too orderly existence.

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The paradox is that technology becomes both a supreme organizing and disorganizing force. The more rational and technological that society becomes, the more it manifests irrational actions and attitude. People feel the need to escape into irrational pursuits if only to enjoy temporary amnesia or pleasure. Technology directly produces a kind of ecstasy by imposing a frenzied tempo upon society that works as a type of compensation for regimentation.

Humans cannot stand to have their lives fully rational, subject to timetables, lists and rules,” Stivers concludes. “Their instincts require an outlet that produces an altered state of consciousness – mysticism or ecstasy.”1

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What has been lost is the balance that once characterized an organic Christian society that was able to reconcile orderly development and progress with calm spiritual pursuits. The material and spiritual orders used to work together to favor the general well-being of society. Today, one works with the other to favor behavior that is self-destructive.

1 Richard Stivers, Shades of Loneliness: Pathologies of a Technological Society, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, Md., 2004, p. 70.

 

Praise for Return to Order — Lt. Gen. Benjamin R. Mixon USA (Ret.)

Lt_Gen_Benjamin_R_Mixon_as_USAPACCOM_CO copy“This is a timely and important book as our nation faces one of the most critical challenges in its history. Overcoming the economic disaster America is facing cannot be solved simply through economic policy. Americans and their leaders must put in place policy that will restore values, work ethics, and, as the author points out so well, honor. As a career military officer, honor was the most important attribute to me and my fellow soldiers. Restoring honor to our economic landscape will put the nation on the path to recovery.”

—  Lt. Gen. Benjamin R. Mixon USA (Ret.)
Former Commanding General, United States Army Pacific

RTO mini2Free Book: Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian Society—Where We’ve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go

Praise for Return to Order – Edwin Meese III

Praise for Return to Order - Edwin Meese IIIReturn to Order provides an interesting analysis of how the United States has departed from the spiritual, cultural, and economic precepts that supported the founding and the early history of our republic. It also sets forth valuable recommendations for restoring our society to its foundation of ordered liberty and traditional values.”

The Honorable Edwin Meese III
Former Attorney General of the United States

 

When Economics Dominates

When Economics Dominates

“The modern world inverts this proper order in man’s soul, placing economics over the spiritual.”

In the modern world, economics dominates. Everything is seen through the prism of economics. However, this is not the primary prism to see life; nor is it the most important human field. Obviously, the primary prism to see life is through the spiritual prism.

 

Instead, the modern world inverts this proper order in man’s soul, placing economics over the spiritual. Although economies are important, it has a lower role in life than God. By placing economy over the spiritual needs of man, a spirit of frenetic intemperance dominates life. Examples of this can be seen in the lives of politicians who place the importance of economic problems over moral problems. There are also businessmen who make of their life a constant struggle to gain money rather than Heaven.

 

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Men do not understand that economics alone is limited. It deals with wealth creation, acquisition, production and consumption. It does not deal with morality, ethics, or God. While economics is limited, it should be linked to morals and ethics. Without this, economics is self-destructive to society. Yet, this is exactly where our economy is headed: self-destruction.Subscription3

Finally, when economics dominates, it ignores the human element. It is cold, objective, and lifeless. Economic activity should be considered in the context of a social order bound by the general rules of sociability, charity, or justice that must govern human relations. Many problems would be superseded if the human element was restored to society. Economics has thus become the master of men instead of the servant.

 

Three Signs That You Need to Disconnect From Electronic Devices

smartphone-720684_960_720

“The constant desire to connect quickly becomes an obsession”

Electronic devices have become such an important part of everybody’s lives. Every day, people everywhere perform the mechanical ritual of checking emails, text messages, Twitter accounts and other social media platforms. The constant desire to connect quickly becomes an obsession to the point that some people do not know when to stop and disconnect from their electronic devices. They even feel lost without them.

Stopping to reflect about proper use of devices is important since dependence on them can have a dehumanizing effect. When people lose control of their usage, they no longer fully develop character, personal talents or even enjoy legitimate pleasures like conversation, silence or reflection. They lose touch with reality and human relationships.

RTO mini2Free Book: Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian Society—Where We’ve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go

Of course, not everyone takes this dependence to the extreme. However, there are certain signs by which people can know when they have gone too far, and need to stop and take measures.

Three such signs are:

1. When You Feel Both Busy and Empty. You know you have gone too far when these devices contribute toward increasing the rhythms of life to the point that you feel busy and empty at the same time. Within a hurried pace of online life, time itself loses meaning. People experience the double sensation of having no time to do anything and doing nothing with their time.

Sociologist Richard Stivers calls this experience the “sterilization of time.” He explains that, “When time loses its meaning—the memory of significant events and transformations within a narrative framework—it becomes the space within which we produce and consume as much as possible.”

Without time to reflect upon and interpret experiences, life becomes all jumbled. People then experience the boredom, exhaustion and psychological stress that is so much a part of modern life.

When this paradox of having no time yet wasting so much time strikes, it is time to stop, disconnect and think about how to use devices less or more constructively.

2. When it Becomes Addictive. According to a survey by the children’s advocacy group Common Sense Media, nearly 59 percent of parents believe their teenage children are addicted to their devices. Some 27 percent of parents consider themselves addicted.

The devices that supposedly empower people now have power over people. The dependency is increasingly causing friction between parents and children, even to the point of daily arguments. It is changing the nature of family relationships and interaction.

It is estimated that teenagers spend an average of nine hours a day online. Most parents and teens check their devices hourly and feel compelled to answer text messages immediately. When one 11-year-old boy in the Common Sense Media poll was asked how long he would like to play online video games, he responded “two thousand or three thousand hours a day.”

When Internet addiction starts to affect your relationships and take huge amounts of your time, it is time to stop, disconnect and take measures.

3. When You Believe You Cannot Stop and Disconnect. You know you have to change when you feel you can’t take a break. Many people see and regret their addiction to their devices and the time wasted on them. However, they are blinded by myths that they simply cannot control their usage. They will believe that they are the only ones with the problem or that no one succeeds in disconnecting. They give up on making any effort based on these myths.

It is then that people should stop and disconnect. Ironically, it is precisely at the time when people realizes the danger of technology overload that they are in the best position to disconnect. When people are mugged by the reality of their overuse, they see the problem with clarity. People should take advantage of this insight to become motivated to change their lives.

People need to take courage from the fact that they are not alone. Millions of other Americans face the same problem. They are taking effective measures to limit their use of technology. Everyone can do the same.

Those addicted to smartphone useage, for example, are going back to simpler phones. One out of every seven Americans are now using the so-called dumb phones that only make calls and send text messages. Some 24.2 million such phones were sold in 2015, many of them by those who wished to unplug. Other people are simply disciplining their time online to reflect realistic needs.

Subscription8.1The important thing to understand about technology is that it is there to serve humanity—not to be served. Technology should be used like a person on a horse who rides the horse towards a goal in life. Today, technology has become a wild horse who drags the fallen rider from the stirrup. When people start losing control, it is time to stop, disconnect and revaluate the use and abuse of their devices. It’s time to get back on top of the horse.

As seen on theblaze.com

Money Money Money Money Money Money

401px-Avarice

“A society dominated by economics.”

Imagine a society where everything revolves around how much something costs; every relationship is based on the maximum amount of material benefit the two parties can receive; man’s joys, hopes, anxieties, and despair are in relation to the economic situation; and the ultimate goal in life is material prosperity. It is a very harsh and unnatural view of life, but that is the reality of today’s society. A society dominated by economics.

In this modern life everything becomes cold and impersonal. People are seen as assets or hindrances. Cuisines, architecture, customs, traditions, and human interaction lose their metaphysical or spiritual value. Life loses it’s sweetness. And what can be said for life after death, or in this case, money? Nothing.

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This is the harsh reality of a mindset obsessed with seeing everything through the prism of economics to the exclusion of all others. While it is true that economics is a necessary practice and science that deals with human activity and the material means for society to operate and exist, it has its place. It is not the most important human field. In fact, it is quite limited, and heavily depends upon other sciences such as ethics and logic. These higher sciences define the norms by which economics must operate. Morality plays a huge role in trading, production and consumption.


The most important facet of life is lost in a life dominated by economics, the human Subscription8.1aspect. In the medieval economic order, activity and human relations were bound and governed by the general rules of sociability, charity, and justice. Rather than seeing another cog in the economic system, people were viewed as souls. Souls that were created by God and given a dignity which was to be respected and admired.

The proper way for economics to work is in harmony with the other higher sciences. Rather than reject moral philosophy and ethics, we must accept and adhere to them. If we truly desire stability and harmony in society, morality and God’s law must come first and foremost.

Why the Family Needs the State: Perfect and Imperfect Societies

"A Catholic Family."

“the family requires higher bodies like the State to guarantee peace and order, justice and protected rights, or security and defense.”

The family is the single most important component of a Christian society. However, while the family is a tremendously vital force for development of the individual, it alone will not suffice. A regime of separate and scattered families, even very Christian families, does not a society make. Isolated families alone cannot normally sustain themselves in face of the uncertainties of life, they need the resources of a community and a State.

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For this reason, sociologists say that the family is an imperfect society. Not in the sense that it is inadequate or defective, rather, the family is imperfect because it depends upon other social units to exist and function. Thus, the family requires higher bodies like the State to guarantee peace and order, justice and protected rights, or security and defense. The family also depends upon the support other imperfect organizations such as municipalities, companies, or professional organizations for resources that it needs to prosper. Continue reading